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Sabtu, 25 Maret 2017
Selamat Datang   |      |  
Tanah Air
Migrasi di Balik Kelezatan Kari Medan
Selasa, 28 Mei 2013 | 18:24 WIB

Oleh Aryo Wisanggeni G dan Aufrida Wismi W

Kompas/Wawan H Prabowo
Umat Hindu bersembahyang di Kuil Shri Mariamman Medan, Jumat (1/3). Kuil tertua di Kota Medan tersebut terletak di kawasan yang dikenal sebagai Kampung Keling.

Orang India selatan datang bergelombang ke Sumatera sejak ribuan tahun silam. Jejak migrasi itu antara lain terekam di antara harum bumbu kari dan keagungan Kuil Shri Mariamman di Medan, Sumatera Utara.

Asap dupa di tangan kanan Pendeta Suben menyebarkan harum saat ia singgah di rumah pemujaan di halaman Kuil Shri Mariamman. Tangan kirinya terus memainkan lonceng kecil. Lantunan bait doa terdengar dari mulutnya ketika ia berhenti di depan arca Raghu, Sewai, dan Chandiran, berikut enam arca lainnya.

Ia melantunkan doa di depan arca Shri Idumban, menyalakan pelita di balik arca, dan mengulangi prosesi di arca Shri Bhairavar. Saat Pendeta Saren memasuki kuil, harum dupa menyebar ke langit-langit kuil Hindu terbesar di Sumut itu.

Satu demi satu warga mendatangi Kuil Shri Mariamman, takzim menyentuh lantainya sebelum melangkahkan kaki memasuki kuil pemujaan Dewa Kali itu. Mereka yang masuk mengujar doa di hadapan Shri Maha Wishnu, Siwan Parvathi Nandi, dan enam arca perwujudan para dewa di atas dinding kanan-kiri kuil. Bait-bait pemujaan berbahasa Tamil dilantunkan lamat-lamat.

Kuil Shri Mariamman yang didirikan pada tahun 1884 itu menjadi penanda utama Kampung Madras, sebuah permukiman orang-orang keturunan India selatan di Kota Medan. Gopuram atau menara bertingkat Kuil Shri Mariamman di sudut persimpangan Jalan Zainal Arifin dan Jalan Teuku Umar hadir mencolok di tengah kesibukan dan kemacetan Kota Medan.

Kuil itu adalah tapal sejarah gelombang terbesar kedatangan orang India selatan ke Sumatera. Gelombang kecil orang India selatan datang ke Sumatera demi rempah dan kapur barus, sedangkan gelombang terbesar orang India pada tahun 1880-an didatangkan Kuypers dan Nienhuys sebagai buruh perkebunan.

Keduanya adalah saudagar tembakau Belanda yang mendapat konsesi tanah dari Sultan Mahmud Deli. Mereka saudagar dan pendiri NV Deli Maatschappij yang menguasai hampir seluruh tanah perkebunan tembakau di Kerajaan Deli. ”Saya generasi ketiga dari ribuan orang India yang didatangkan ke perkebunan tembakau terbaik di Deli,” ujar Ketua Parisada Hindu Dharma Indonesia Provinsi Sumut Narain Sami.

 

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Ada sejumlah kuil yang lebih tua dari Kuil Shri Mariamman Medan. Kuil Shri Mariamman di Langkat berdiri tahun 1876. Namun, upacara Thaipussam di Kuil Shri Mariamman selalu paling ramai. ”Orang Tamil paling takut dengan ancaman mandor perkebunan mencabut hak cuti pada hari Thaipussam jika mereka malas. Para pekerja pilih rajin demi bisa merayakan Thaipussam di Kuil Mariamman Medan,” kata Narain tertawa.

Awalnya, para pekerja itu hanya singgah sepanjang perayaan Thaipussam, tetapi lama-kelamaan makin banyak yang menetap membentuk permukiman. Itulah cikal bakal Kampung Keling yang kini bersalin nama menjadi Kampung Madras.

Kampung itu kini

Di balik mobil yang terparkir terimpit di antara rumah yang rapat berderet di Jalan Teuku Cik Ditiro, Toko Kasturi tetap mencolok mata. Periuk logam, rantang, dan ceret logam bertumpukan di rak kacanya. Semerbak rempah tercium di lorong selebar 1 meteran, berbatas rak-rak bersusun tinggi yang penuh bumbu dan rempah.

Toko milik Wira Kumaren (65) itu sarat segala macam bumbu dan rempah, mulai dari cabai putar, bunga lawang, kacang dolca, kapulaga india, lada, alba, biji sawi, cengkeh, wijen putih, jemuju, jinten hitam, cabai jawa, biji pala, bubuk kunyit, kayu manis, hingga cabai.

Deretan dupa sembahyang yang dijual Wira menjadi aroma lain. Duduk di balik meja kerjanya, di samping altar pemujaan Hindu yang rapi, Wira mengisahkan perubahan Kampung Madras dan kari. ”Dulu, kawasan ini hutan bercampur Kampung Keling. Rumah hanya satu-dua, misalnya, di samping Jalan Muara Takus, batas Kampung Keling,” ujar Wira.

Kompas/Wawan H Prabowo
Umat Hindu bersembahyang di Kuil Shri Mariamman Medan, Jumat (1/3). Kuil tertua di Kota Medan tersebut terletak di kawasan yang dikenal sebagai Kampung Keling.
Kala Wira kecil, lembu dan kerbau berkeliaran di mana-mana. ”Kampung Kubur yang padat itu dulu kubangan lembu. Orang Panjabi banyak memelihara lembu, mengolah susu menjadi susu asam, minyak sapi, macam-macam. Waktu itu, tak payah membuat kari berkuah susu. Tiap hari orang pun makan kari berkuah susu,” katanya.

Tahun 1960-an, perubahan mulai terjadi cepat. Kubangan lumpur bersalin menjadi rumah, dan sapi hilang. Makin lama makin jarang kari berkuah susu tersaji di meja makan rumah Wira. Deretan jalan utama Kampung Madras, Jalan Zainal Arifin, Jalan Teuku Umar, dan Jalan Teuku Cik Ditiro tak tampak sebagai kantong permukiman orang keturunan India selatan. Di jalan yang lebih kecil, seperti Jalan Kalingga, atau Jalan PJ Nehru, wajah Kampung Madras ”kian sama” dengan belahan Kota Medan lainnya.

”Orang-orang kami pun makin pintar saja memasak masakan Melayu bersantan. Ketika dicobanya santan itu menjadi kuah kari, ternyata rasanya enak, berlanjutlah sampai sekarang,” ujar Wira tersenyum.

Susu dan santan

Di dapur Madu Malini (32) yang gaduh dan sibuk, cerita Wira teracik menjadi sepinggan hidangan. Di dapur itu, enam kompor gas tanpa henti memasak hidangan pesanan pengunjung Restoran Cahaya Baru, Jalan Teuku Cik Ditiro. Tangan Malini seperti berlarian di antara cawan berisi aneka bumbu, dari biji sawi, alba, jinten, bunga lawang, kayu manis, bubuk lada, cengkeh, kapulaga, hingga bubuk cabai. Dijumputnya isi sejumlah cawan, dilemparnya ke periuk logam, aroma tajam itu segera diimbuhi kacang kuda, kacang kapri, dan daun kari.
Kompas/Agus Susanto
Masjid Agung Baitul Makmur Meulaboh berdiri megah di Desa Seuneubok, Kecamatan Johan Pahlawan, Kabupaten Aceh Barat, Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, Rabu (13/2). Dalam Hikayat Ranto dikisahkan perantauan masyarakat Pidie ke Pantai barat-selatan Aceh dan membuka Seuneubok lada.

Dalam hitungan menit, menu kari vegetarian terhidang. Aroma daun kari yang khas menggelitik penciuman. Citarasanya pun tajam menegaskan begitu banyak rempah di dalamnya. Terasa benar, kari bukan pedas karena cabai, tetapi ”panas” karena aneka rempah yang teramu lezat. ”Ini kari india dengan citarasa kami orang-orang keturunan India yang sudah empat generasi tinggal di Sumatera Utara,” kata Malini tersenyum.

”Kami memakai rempah yang sama, beberapa rempah asal India didatangkan dari Malaysia. Dibandingkan kari di India atau Malaysia, rasa kari kami lembut. Kuahnya pun santan (bukan susu),” kata Malini. Inilah kari bersantan hasil ”kawin silang” budaya India dan Melayu yang lahir di Kota Medan.

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