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Selasa, 21 Februari 2017
Selamat Datang   |      |  
Tanah Air
Sangiran, Bumi Manusia Jawa yang Tandus
Jumat, 17 Mei 2013 | 16:58 WIB

Oleh Sri Rejeki

Kompas/Ferganata Indra Riatmoko
Suyono (35) membuat kerajinan di Dusun Sangiran, Desa Krikilan, Kecamatan Kalijambe, Kabupaten Sragen, Jawa Tengah, dengan bahan baku batu yang oleh warga setempat disebut dengan naman batu batik, Rabu (13/3). Hasil kerajinan tersebut kemudian disetor ke pedagang untuk dijual sebagai souvenir di Museum Manusia Purba Sangiran.

Suyono (35) memahat batu di depan sebuah rumah sederhana di Dusun Sangiran. Ia mengolah batu menjadi patung manusia purba, Homo erectus. Di dusun yang tandus itu, usaha kerajinan dari batu alam menjadi gantungan hidup warga. Sayangnya, kemiskinan warga berbanding terbalik dengan ketenaran Sangiran sebagai salah satu pusat evolusi manusia di dunia.

Tak banyak memang pilihan bagi Suyono yang hanya tamatan sekolah dasar. Begitu pula warga sedusunnya yang sama-sama tak punya tanah pertanian. Masyarakat Sangiran kini berjuang merajut hidup di tengah tanah yang tandus.

Ini bagaikan ”reinkarnasi” fenomena berjuta tahun silam ketika manusia-manusia pertama penghuni Sangiran, Homo erectus, berjuang hidup di alam yang sedang berubah.

Di balik megahnya Museum Manusia Purba yang berlapiskan pualam, hidup masyarakat sekitar rata-rata masih dibelit kemiskinan. Mereka menghuni rumah-rumah berdinding anyaman bilah bambu. Kemiskinan membuat warga tidak mampu menyekolahkan anaknya, rata-rata hanya tamat sekolah menengah pertama. Materi tanah Sangiran berupa endapan lempung hitam dan pasir fluviovulkanik menyebabkan sifat tanah tidak subur dan tandus di musim kemarau.

Sangiran kini adalah kawasan tandus yang mencakup 22 desa di empat kecamatan yang berada di dua kabupaten, Sragen dan Karanganyar, Jawa Tengah.

Lahan padi yang hampir sebagian besar tadah hujan hanya mampu satu atau dua kali panen setahun. Di sisa musim, lahan ditanami palawija, seperti singkong, atau dibiarkan menganggur.

Dari hasil membuat kerajinan batu alam, Suyono yang belum berkeluarga ini memperoleh penghasilan Rp 50.000 per hari. Uang itu hanya cukup untuk makan dirinya, ibu, dan seorang keponakannya.

Nasib tidak jauh berbeda dialami perajin lainnya, Giyoto (44). Dalam sebulan, ia biasanya memperoleh pesanan 100 patung manusia purba setinggi 14 sentimeter (cm) yang dihargai Rp 7.500 per buah, serta Rp 10.000 per buah untuk patung setinggi 17 cm. Giyoto menghidupi istri dan dua anaknya. ”Hanya cukup untuk makan dan sekolah anak,” katanya.

 

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Begitu pula warga yang menjadi petani, seperti Sumojuwito (65). Dari panen terakhir, ia hanya memperoleh 3 kuintal gabah basah dari lahan 2.000 meter persegi miliknya. Serangan wereng membuat produksi padinya merosot hampir separuh. Beras yang diperoleh digunakan untuk makan keluarga hingga panen berikutnya.

Saat masih muda, untuk memenuhi kebutuhan sehari-hari ia bekerja sebagai buruh bangunan. Kini, pada masa tua, kehidupan hariannya ditopang enam anaknya yang juga hidup pas-pasan. Beruntung, ia sempat menyekolahkan mereka hingga sekolah menengah atas.

”Tetapi, sekarang saya bingung, tidak punya uang untuk pengobatan istri yang kena darah tinggi dan stroke. Kalau ada uang, ya, saya bawa berobat. Kalau tidak, terpaksa tidak diapa-apakan,” kata Sumojuwito.

Dengan kondisi tersebut, sementara di hadapan warga terhampar ”harta karun” atau ”barang tambang” berupa fosil, tidak jarang membuat warga tergiur perdagangan fosil yang ilegal menurut Undang-Undang Nomor 11 Tahun 2010 tentang Cagar Budaya. Salah satunya adalah Subur yang sempat mendekam di penjara selama 6 bulan karena menjual fosil. Subur kini lebih memilih usaha batik. Fosil temuan yang ”mampir” di tangannya ia serahkan kepada museum. Terlebih anak sulungnya, lulusan arkeologi universitas ternama, kini sudah bekerja di museum.

Kompas/Ferganata Indra Riatmoko
Museum Manusia Purba Sangiran terhampar di areal seluas 56 kilometer persegi di Desa Krikilan, Kecamatan Kalijambe, Kabupaten Sragen, Jawa Tengah, Selasa (12/3). Museum tersebut telah ditetapkan UNESCO sebagai salah satu Warisan Budaya Dunia dan berfungsi membantu masyarakat mempelajari berbagai hal tentang kehidupan manusia prasejarah.

”Kami sudah tinggal di Sangiran sebelum temuan fosil-fosil. Kalau memang kami tidak boleh berbuat apa-apa di atas lahan sendiri, seharusnya lahan itu secara bertahap dibebaskan pemerintah,” kata Subur.

Keinginan warga menggarap kerajinan batu alam tersebut terkendala karena bahan baku harus diperoleh dengan cara menggali.

Padahal, aktivitas penggalian dilarang karena dikhawatirkan akan merusak situs. Warga lainnya, Darmadi, mengungkapkan, masyarakat sebenarnya tidak ngotot untuk hanya mengeksplorasi fosil atau batu alam. Bidang ekonomi kreatif sebenarnya sangat potensial, termasuk pengembangan desa wisata. Sayangnya, belum ada komitmen untuk mengangkat masyarakat dari kemiskinan.

Pusat perhatian dunia

Selama lebih dari 75 tahun, Sangiran menarik perhatian dunia. Di situs manusia purba yang terhampar di areal seluas 56 kilometer persegi itu ditemukan 120 individu fosil Homo erectus. Jumlah ini lebih dari separuh populasi Homo erectus yang ditemukan di dunia.

Sangiran memulai kisahnya 2,4 juta tahun lalu saat kawasan ini masih berupa lautan yang dihuni, antara lain, ikan hiu dan moluska (hewan bertubuh lunak, seperti kerang dan tridakna atau siput raksasa).

Jejak Sangiran sebagai lautan tertinggal di areal ladang jagung di Dusun Pablengan, Desa Krikilan, Kecamatan Kalijambe, Kabupaten Sragen, Jawa Tengah. Berlokasi di belakang rumah Sutiman, tanah seluas 1 meter persegi yang disebut sumber air asin itu tampak kebiruan.

Dari wilayah seluas 8 x 7 kilometer ini tersingkap fosil-fosil Homo erectus, hierarki paling penting dalam sejarah kehidupan manusia sebelum sampai pada tahapan manusia modern, Homo sapiens. Fosil Homo erectus juga ditemukan di Afrika, Eropa, dan Asia barat.

Pamor Sangiran yang berkilau di dunia penelitian ilmiah tidak linear dengan kehidupan warga setempat. 

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